The completion of the railroads to the West following the American Civil War marked a turning point in American history, opening up vast areas of the region to settlement and economic development. This period, known as the archetypical Old West, is widely accepted by historians to have occurred between 1865, the end of the Civil War, and 1890, when the frontier was officially declared closed by the Census Bureau.
Leading theorist Frederick Jackson Turner delved into the significance of the frontier, arguing that it played a crucial role in shaping American civilization. Turner contended that the frontier promoted the formation of a composite nationality for the American people and fueled a process of continuous development that gave rise to the forces defining the American character.
The American frontier was characterized by a zone of contact at the edge of settlement, a place where communities were created and defended, lands were utilized, crops were cultivated, and states were formed. This frontier history was not just a tale of conquest but also one of survival, persistence, and the merging of diverse peoples and cultures that contributed to the birth and ongoing growth of America.
The availability of free land and the allure of starting new farms attracted pioneering Americans, driving the nation’s westward expansion. Through treaties, political compromises, military conquests, and the establishment of law and order, the United States extended from coast to coast, transforming the Great Plains and impacting the lives of Native Americans in the West.
The loss of the bison and the growth of white settlement had a profound effect on Native American communities. Despite occasional victories, the Native Americans were ultimately overwhelmed by the greater numbers of settlers and the might of the U.S. government, leading to their confinement on reservations in less desirable regions of the West.
The image of the cowboy became synonymous with the West in the late 19th century, often depicted as a glamorous and heroic figure in popular culture. However, this portrayal was far from the truth. The first cowboys were Spanish vaqueros, and black cowboys also played a significant role in the development of the cattle industry. The life of a cowboy was characterized by hard labor, poor living conditions, and economic hardship.
The growth of cities in the West played a crucial role in its development, serving as transportation hubs, financial centers, and providers of goods, services, and entertainment. Railroads played a key role in connecting the West to the rest of the country, allowing for the shipment of cattle and facilitating migration.
European immigrants and African Americans also played vital roles in the settlement of the West. Immigrants from different backgrounds established communities based on shared religious and ethnic ties, while African Americans served as soldiers, cowboys, farmhands, and workers in various industries.
As the American frontier faded into history, its myths and legends persisted in the imaginations of Americans and people from around the world. The West’s portrayal in fiction and film helped shape a distinctive American self-image, one that continues to endure as a symbol of American exceptionalism.
In conclusion, the old photographs of the American frontier offer a captivating glimpse into the life and struggle of those who ventured into the Wild West during a transformative period in American history. The legacy of this era lives on, inspiring fascination and admiration for the pioneers who helped shape the nation’s identity and values.
(Photo credit: Wikimedia Commons / National Archives / Library of Congress / Wikipedia / Pinterest / Flickr).