The art of portraiture has captivated people for centuries, but in recent years, its popularity has soared to new heights. The advent of digital photography has ushered in a new era of portraiture, revolutionizing the way we perceive ourselves and others. To understand the significance of this art form and its origins, we delve into a concise history of portrait photography.
Long before the age of smartphones and selfies, portraiture emerged as a prevalent practice in the art world. Initially, portraits were predominantly depicted through paintings, serving as symbols of power, status, and nobility. These works were primarily reserved for the wealthy elite, reinforcing their social standing.
However, the landscape of portraiture shifted dramatically in the late 1800s with the rise of photography, coinciding with the release of the pioneering Kodak cameras. This technological breakthrough made portraiture more accessible to the masses. Unlike paintings that required lengthy and often tedious sessions, photography offered convenience by capturing images of individuals or entire families in a single shot.
Although today’s selfies might be synonymous with portraiture, the roots of this practice can be traced back to 1839. That year, a self-proclaimed “mathematician” named Robert Cornelius took the first known self-portrait photograph. Using a camera obscura, a device commonly employed by artists of the time to trace their subjects, Cornelius captured his image in the family’s store in Philadelphia.
However, it wasn’t until 1841 that Cornelius had his self-portrait developed as a daguerreotype, a photographic process invented by Louis Daguerre. Interestingly, Cornelius only sought to exhibit his photograph at an exhibition and did not perceive any commercial value in it.
The daguerreotype process marked a significant milestone in the history of portrait photography. It was the first commercially successful photographic technique that produced permanent images on a silver surface. Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre invented the daguerreotype in 1835, and it became available to the public in 1839.
The introduction of the daguerreotype led to the establishment of the first photographic portrait studios, notably in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1842. This development propelled the popularity of portraiture across America and Europe. Daguerreotypists were soon joined by photographers employing calotypes, which utilized paper negatives, in their studios or homes. This trend persisted until around 1850, when ambrotypes emerged as an alternative to wet collodion paper negatives, despite their existence since 1854.
The 19th century witnessed the rise of tintypes in the realm of portraiture. Tintypes, produced through the wet plate collodion process, gained popularity due to their affordability and durability. Introduced commercially by George Eastman, who marketed them under the brand name “Kodak No. 2 Brownie Camera” after his introduction of the Kodak camera in 1888, tintypes became a sought-after option for portraiture. These images, encased in specialized photographic cases, could withstand the test of time, remaining intact for decades without fading or damage.
In 1871, the development of dry plates revolutionized portrait photography. Composed of glass coated with light-sensitive chemicals, dry plates allowed photographers to capture images with shorter exposure times. This innovation provided numerous advantages, such as more time for posing, increased flexibility in setting up studios, reduced risk of chemical spills, and lower equipment costs. Additionally, photographers could now take pictures outdoors, escaping the confines of controlled studio lighting. However, these photographs lacked the sharpness of wet-plate images due to the limited time available for complete light reaction during development.
Portraits played a significant role in photojournalism, particularly during times of conflict. In 1854, the Crimean War became the backdrop for the first photographs ever taken during a war. As photography evolved, photographers recognized the commercial potential of capturing images of battlefields, documenting both triumphs and tragedies. Renowned photographers like Roger Fenton, Matthew Brady, Alexander Gardner, Timothy O’Sullivan, Henry Peach Robinson, and Alvin Langdon Coburn gained fame for their work on military campaigns. They were pioneers in revealing the realities of war and providing audiences with firsthand glimpses into foreign cultures and landscapes.
During the Great Depression of the 1930s, photographers began capturing portraits of families and individuals affected by the economic crisis. These images, often referred to as “Dust Bowl Photography,” shed light on the daily struggles of migrant workers and low-income families. One iconic photograph from that era is Dorothea Lange’s 1936 portrait titled “Migrant Mother.”
In the modern era, portraiture has become an integral part of photography and permeates various forms of media, particularly in celebrity culture. Notably, Annie Leibovitz stands out as a pioneering photographer in celebrity portraiture. Her black and white photographs captivate viewers with their simplicity and striking compositions.
The advent of smartphones and devices has revolutionized portraiture, enabling self-portraits to become more accessible and convenient through the phenomenon of the selfie. Although the term “selfie” gained prominence around 2002, nearly 150 years after Cornelius captured his self-portrait, it wasn’t until around 2011, with the rise of social media, that selfies truly gained widespread popularity.
The history of portrait photography is a testament to the evolution of an art form. From the emergence of paintings as a symbol of wealth and power to the democratization of portraiture through technological advancements, this visual medium has continuously adapted to reflect the ever-changing world. In the present day, portraits remain a powerful means of capturing and portraying the essence of individuals and societies.