The Penny Farthing, also known as the “high wheel” or “ordinary” bicycle, is an iconic and distinctive early form of bicycle that emerged in the late 19th century. It’s characterized by its large front wheel and much smaller rear wheel, creating a distinctive look and a unique riding experience. Here’s more about the history, design, and significance of the Penny Farthing.
The Penny Farthing gained popularity during the late 19th century, particularly in the 1870s and 1880s. It emerged as an advancement over the “boneshaker” bicycles, which had solid rubber tires and a wooden frame. The name “Penny Farthing” is believed to originate from the British penny and farthing coins, with the front wheel resembling a larger penny and the smaller rear wheel resembling a smaller farthing.
The most distinctive feature of the Penny Farthing is its wheel size disproportion. The front wheel, often measuring around 48 inches or even larger, was significantly larger than the rear wheel, which was typically around 16 inches. The rider sat atop a high saddle mounted directly over the front wheel, giving the bicycle its unique appearance. To propel the bicycle forward, riders used pedals directly attached to the front wheel.
Riding a Penny Farthing required skill and balance, as well as a fair amount of bravery. The high wheel meant that riders were positioned quite high off the ground, making falls potentially dangerous. Mounting and dismounting the bicycle required a technique known as the “hop,” where the rider would hop onto the pedals while the bicycle was in motion. Stopping the bicycle involved applying a rear brake or “spoon” brake to the rear wheel.
While the Penny Farthing allowed for greater speed and efficiency compared to earlier bicycles, it also came with challenges. The high center of gravity and the risk of taking a header over the handlebars made it somewhat hazardous. The design also limited the size of the front wheel, making it harder to navigate uneven surfaces.
The popularity of the Penny Farthing began to decline as safer and more practical bicycle designs emerged, including the introduction of the “safety bicycle” with equal-sized wheels, chain drives, and a lower center of gravity. These advancements led to increased comfort and safety for riders.
The Penny Farthing remains a symbol of the pioneering spirit of early bicycling and the advancements in transportation during the late 19th century. It is often associated with a sense of adventure, daring, and the pursuit of innovation. In modern times, Penny Farthing bicycles are sometimes used for historical reenactments and parades.
In summary, the Penny Farthing is a unique and intriguing chapter in the history of bicycles. Its distinctive design and challenging riding experience contributed to the development of bicycle technology, ultimately paving the way for the more practical and accessible bicycles we know today.